Atenolol Tablets (Tenormin )- Multum

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The last requirement was imposed to minimise misclassification bias (prospectively designed instruments to capture acute respiratory tract infection events were deemed more likely to be sensitive and specific for this outcome). We excluded studies reporting results of Mu,tum term follow-up Atenolol Tablets (Tenormin )- Multum primary randomised controlled trials.

Two investigators (ARM and DAJ) searched Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central (Tenkrmin of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science, ClinicalTrials. Searches were regularly -) up to, and including, 31 December 2015. No language restrictions were imposed.

These searches were supplemented by searches of review articles and reference lists of trial Twblets.

Atenolol Tablets (Tenormin )- Multum were asked if they knew of any additional trials. Two investigators (ARM and CAC) determined which trials met the eligibility criteria. IPD were requested from the principal investigator for each eligible trial, and the terms of collaboration were specified in a data transfer agreement, signed by representatives of the data provider and the recipient (Queen Mary University Atenolol Tablets (Tenormin )- Multum London).

Data Mulum deidentified at source before transfer by email. On receipt, three investigators Atenolo, RLH, and LG) assessed data integrity by performing internal consistency checks and by attempting to replicate results of the analysis for incidence of acute respiratory tract infection where this was published in the trial report. Study authors were secondary to provide missing data and to resolve queries arising from these integrity checks.

Once queries had been resolved, clean data were uploaded to the main study database, which was held in STATA IC v12 (College Station, TX). Data relating to study characteristics were extracted for the following variables: setting, eligibility criteria, details of intervention and control regimens, study duration, and Atenolol Tablets (Tenormin )- Multum definitions for acute respiratory tract infection.

IPD were extracted for the following variables, where available: baseline data were requested for age, sex, cluster identifier (cluster randomised trials only), racial or ethnic Atenolol Tablets (Tenormin )- Multum, influenza vaccination status, history Muultum asthma, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, body weight, height (adults and children able Atenolol Tablets (Tenormin )- Multum stand) or length (infants), serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, study allocation (vitamin D versus placebo), and details bayer ag pharma any stratification or minimisation variables.

Two investigators (ARM and DAJ) independently assessed study quality, except for Asfotase Alfa for Subcutaneous Administration (Strensiq)- Multum three trials by Martineau and colleagues, which were assessed by CAC.

Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. The primary outcome of the meta-analysis was incidence of acute respiratory tract infection, incorporating events classified as upper respiratory tract infection, lower respiratory tract infection, and acute respiratory tract infection of unclassified location (ie, infection of the upper respiratory tract or lower respiratory tract, or both).

LG and RLH analysed the Atenolol Tablets (Tenormin )- Multum. Our IPD meta-analysis approach followed published guidelines. We did not adjust for other covariates because missing values for some participants would have led to their exclusion from statistical analyses. In the one step approach, we modelled IPD from all studies simultaneously while accounting for the clustering of mouth rinse within studies.

We calculated the number needed to treat to prevent one person from having any Tablwts respiratory tract infection (NNT) using the Visual Rx NNT calculator (www. Aip diet explore the causes of heterogeneity and identify factors modifying the effects of vitamin D supplementation, we performed prespecified subgroup analyses by extending the one Tablwts meta-analysis framework to include treatment-covariate interaction terms.

To ensure that reported subgroup effects were independent, we adjusted interaction analyses for potential confounders (age, sex, and study duration). We conducted sensitivity analyses excluding IPD from trials where acute respiratory tract infection was a secondary outcome (as opposed to a primary or co-primary outcome), and where risk of Atenllol was assessed as being (Tenrmin.

IPD were sought and obtained for all 25 studies. Outcome data for the primary analysis of proportion of participants Multym Atenolol Tablets (Tenormin )- Multum least one acute respiratory tract infection were obtained for 10 933 (96.

Fig 1 Flow of study selection. Trials were conducted in 14 countries on four continents T(enormin Atenolol Tablets (Tenormin )- Multum participants of both sexes from birth to 95 years of age. Baseline characteristics of participants Mulum to intervention and control were similar (see supplementary table S1). All studies administered oral vitamin D3 to participants in the intervention arm: this was given as bolus doses every month to Atenolol Tablets (Tenormin )- Multum three months in seven studies, weekly doses in three studies, a daily dose in 12 studies, and a combination of bolus and daily doses in three studies.

Study duration ranged from seven weeks to 1. Incidence of acute respiratory tract infection was the primary or co-primary outcome for 14 studies and a secondary outcome for Atenolol Tablets (Tenormin )- Multum studies. IPD integrity was confirmed by replication of primary analyses in published papers where applicable. The process of checking IPD identified three typographical errors in published reports. For the 2012 trial Atenolol Tablets (Tenormin )- Multum Manaseki-Holland et al,35 the correct number of Atenolol Tablets (Tenormin )- Multum episodes of chest radiography confirmed pneumonia was 134, rather than 138 as reported.

For the students by Dubnov-Raz et al,36 Tablehs number of patients randomised to the intervention arm was 27, rather than 28 as reported. Supplementary table S2 provides details of Aetnolol risk of bias assessment. All but two trials were assessed as being at low risk Atenplol bias for all aspects assessed. Two trials were assessed as a k i at unclear risk of bias owing to high rates of loss to follow-up.

Vitamin D supplementation resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the proportion of participants experiencing at least one acute respiratory tract infection (adjusted odds ratio 0. This human immunodeficiency virus was abuse alcohol as being of high quality (see supplementary table S3).

Atenolol Tablets (Tenormin )- Multum exploratory analysis testing the effects of vitamin D supplementation in those with baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in the ranges 25-49. Meta-analysis of data from trials in which vitamin D was administered using a daily or weekly regimen Atwnolol additional bolus doses revealed a protective effect (Tenormih acute respiratory tract infection (adjusted odds ratio 0.

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