Finder journal elsevier

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Where possible, results of this systematic review and meta-analysis will be disseminated to individual participants through the principal investigators of each trial. Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trials of supplementation with vitamin D3 or finder journal elsevier D2 of any duration were eligible for inclusion if they had been approved by a research ethics committee and if data on incidence of acute respiratory tract infection were collected prospectively and prespecified as an efficacy outcome.

The last requirement was imposed to minimise misclassification bias (prospectively designed instruments to capture acute respiratory tract infection events were deemed more finder journal elsevier to be sensitive and specific for this outcome). We finder journal elsevier studies reporting results of long term follow-up of primary redermic la roche posay controlled trials.

Two investigators (ARM and DAJ) searched Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.

Searches were regularly ccbs drugs up to, and including, 31 December 2015. No language restrictions were imposed. These searches were supplemented by searches of review articles and Chloroptic (Chloramphenicol)- FDA lists of trial publications.

Collaborators were asked if they knew of any additional trials. Two investigators (ARM and CAC) determined which trials met the eligibility criteria.

IPD were requested from virams me principal investigator for each eligible trial, and the terms of collaboration were specified in a data transfer agreement, signed by representatives of the data provider and the recipient (Queen Mary University of London). Data were finder journal elsevier at source before transfer by email. On receipt, three investigators (DAJ, RLH, and LG) assessed data integrity by performing internal consistency checks and by attempting to replicate results of the analysis for incidence of acute respiratory tract infection where this was published in the trial report.

Study authors were contacted to provide missing data and to resolve queries arising from these integrity checks. Once queries had been resolved, clean data were uploaded to the main study database, which was held in STATA IC v12 (College Station, TX). Data relating to study characteristics were extracted for the finder journal elsevier variables: setting, eligibility criteria, details of intervention and control regimens, study duration, and case definitions for acute finder journal elsevier tract infection.

IPD were extracted for the following variables, where available: baseline data finder journal elsevier requested for age, sex, cluster identifier (cluster randomised trials finder journal elsevier, racial or ethnic origin, influenza vaccination status, history of asthma, history of chronic finder journal elsevier pulmonary disease, body weight, p e (adults and children able to stand) or length (infants), serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, study allocation (vitamin D versus placebo), and details of any stratification or progress in cardiovascular diseases variables.

Two investigators (ARM and DAJ) independently assessed study quality, except for the three trials by Martineau and colleagues, which were assessed by CAC. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. The primary outcome of the meta-analysis was incidence of acute respiratory tract infection, incorporating events classified as upper respiratory tract infection, lower respiratory tract infection, and finder journal elsevier respiratory tract infection of unclassified location (ie, infection of the upper respiratory tract or lower respiratory tract, or both).

LG and RLH analysed the data. Our IPD meta-analysis approach followed published finder journal elsevier. We did not adjust for other covariates because missing values for some participants would have led to their exclusion from statistical analyses.

In the finder journal elsevier step approach, we modelled IPD from all studies simultaneously while accounting for the clustering of participants within studies. We calculated the number needed to treat to prevent one person from having any acute respiratory tract infection (NNT) using the Visual Rx NNT calculator (www. To explore the finder journal elsevier of heterogeneity and identify factors modifying the effects of vitamin D supplementation, we performed prespecified subgroup analyses by extending the one step meta-analysis framework to include treatment-covariate interaction terms.

To ensure that reported subgroup effects were independent, we adjusted interaction analyses for potential confounders (age, sex, and study duration). We conducted sensitivity finder journal elsevier excluding IPD from trials where acute respiratory tract infection was a secondary outcome (as finder journal elsevier to a primary or co-primary outcome), and where risk of bias was assessed as finder journal elsevier unclear.

IPD were sought and obtained for all 25 studies. Outcome data for the primary analysis of proportion of participants experiencing at least one acute respiratory tract infection were obtained for 10 933 (96. Fig 1 Flow finder journal elsevier study selection. Trials were conducted in 14 countries on four continents and enrolled participants of both sexes from birth to 95 years of age.

Baseline characteristics of participants randomised to intervention and control were similar (see supplementary table S1). All studies administered finder journal elsevier vitamin D3 to participants in the intervention arm: personal online training was given as bolus doses every month to every three months in seven studies, weekly doses in three studies, a daily dose in 12 studies, and a combination of bolus and daily doses in three studies.

Study duration ranged from seven Kionex (Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate)- Multum to 1. Incidence of acute respiratory tract finder journal elsevier was the primary or co-primary outcome for 14 studies and a secondary outcome for 11 studies. IPD integrity was confirmed by replication of primary analyses in published papers where applicable. The process finder journal elsevier checking IPD identified three typographical errors in published reports.

For the 2012 trial by Manaseki-Holland et al,35 the correct number of repeat episodes of chest radiography confirmed pneumonia was 134, rather than 138 as reported. For the trial by Dubnov-Raz et al,36 the number of patients randomised to the intervention arm was 27, rather than 28 as reported.

Supplementary table S2 provides finder journal elsevier of the risk of bias assessment. All but two trials were assessed as finder journal elsevier at low risk of bias for all aspects assessed.

Two trials were assessed as being at unclear risk of bias owing to high rates of loss to follow-up. Vitamin D supplementation resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the proportion of participants experiencing at least one acute respiratory tract infection (adjusted odds ratio finder journal elsevier. This evidence was assessed as being of high quality (see supplementary table S3).

An exploratory analysis testing the effects of vitamin D finder journal elsevier in those with baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in the ranges 25-49.



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